Some of the questions raised by Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences will then be addressed. The counters are surrounded by lead or steel shielding, to eliminate background radiation and to reduce the incidence of cosmic rays. I had no connection with the Yucca Mountain project, but the reviewer had contacted me as an independent authority on hydrological applications of 36 Cl. Many recent writers on this topic have attempted to generalize answers to these questions. Without being constrained by having to provide immediate results and without having to regularly run the gauntlet of hostile reviewers from other disciplines, they had the opportunity to systematically address the development of the method and present it to the hydrological community in a fairly mature state. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.
During the s, the focus of ground water theoretical development changed to solute i.
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Figure 3 Histories of CFC concentrations in air and in water equilibrated with air, showing how measured concentrations in ground water can identify the date of recharge. For beta counters, a sample weighing at least 10 grams 0. Overall, the mixing of deep and surface waters takes far longer than the mixing of atmospheric CO 2 with the surface waters, and as a result water from some deep ocean areas has an apparent radiocarbon age of several thousand years. The method was developed in the late s by Willard Libbywho received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in Radiocarbon dating is generally limited to dating samples no more than 50, years old, as samples older than that have insufficient 14 C to be measurable. Carbon dioxide produced in this way diffuses in the atmosphere, is dissolved in the ocean, and is taken up by plants via photosynthesis. Although the principles of a technique such as.